For you history buffs, following is interesting information from Wikipedia on the history of vitamins.
|Year of discovery||Vitamin||Food source|
|1913||Vitamin A (Retinol)||Cod liver oil|
|1910||Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)||Rice bran|
|1920||Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)||Citrus, most fresh foods|
|1920||Vitamin D (Calciferol)||Cod liver oil|
|1920||Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)||Meat, eggs|
|1922||Vitamin E (Tocopherol)||Wheat germ oil, unrefined vegetable oils|
|1926||Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins)||liver, eggs, animal products|
|1929||Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone)||Leafy green vegetables|
|1931||Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)||Meat, whole grains,in many foods|
|1931||Vitamin B7 (Biotin)||Meat, dairy products, eggs|
|1934||Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)||Meat, dairy products|
|1936||Vitamin B3 (Niacin)||Meat, eggs, grains|
|1941||Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)||Leafy green vegetables|
The value of eating a certain food to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding liver to a person would help cure night blindness, an illness now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency. The advancement of ocean voyages during the Renaissance resulted in prolonged periods without access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and made illnesses from vitamin deficiency common among ships’ crews.
In 1747, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, causing poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums, severe pain, and death. In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy, which recommended using lemons and limes to avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname Limey for sailors of that organization. Lind’s discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy’s Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene, regular exercise, and maintaining the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food. As a result, Arctic expeditions continued to be plagued by scurvy and other deficiency diseases. In the early 20th century, when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic, the prevailing medical theory was that scurvy was caused by “tainted” canned food.
The natural healing properties of food have been used for centuries. Natural supplements have evolved from pill form to Isotonix liquid form.
Broken down to its roots, iso means ‘the same’ and tonic means ‘pressure or tone.’ When used to describe solutions that are meant for consumption, isotonic means having the same ﬂuid pressure as body ﬂuids. Tears, blood plasma, lymph and other body ﬂuids are all isotonic. When we ingest food, gastric (stomach) juice is secreted onto the food, and muscular contractions of the stomach mix the contents until a reasonably uniform solution is achieved. The solutions of food (chyme) that enter the small intestine for absorption are made isotonic by the action of the stomach in a time-consuming process. The ﬂuid pressure of food or isotonic solutions across semipermeable membranes, such as the walls of the small intestine, is generally referred to as having a particular osmolality or tonicity. Osmolality is measured in units referred to as milliosmoles/kilogram of water (mOsm/kg). It can be said that when solutions on opposite sides of a membrane have the same osmolality, they are iso-osmotic or isotonic. Normal human blood serum (the ﬂuid portion without cells and platelets) has an osmolality of 288 mOsm/kg, as do most other ﬂuids in the body. Therefore, in physiological terms, when a solution’s osmolality is the same, or nearly the same, as that of normal human blood serum, it is referred to as isotonic.
Concentration and absorption
Concentration and absorption are factors that go hand in hand for the proper use of nutritional supplements. Concentration – the amount of nutrient dissolved in a given amount of a solvent such as water or stomach ﬂuid – is usually directly related to the efﬁciency of nutrient absorption. This is especially true in the process of passive diffusion. Passive diffusion works when the concentration of nutrients in the lumen of the small intestine is higher than the concentration inside the intestinal cells.
The nutrients “flow” down from the gradient from high to low concentration. Since Isotonix® products experience little dilution in the gastrointestinal tract, they arrive at the absorption sites in high concentration and ensure efficient absorption.
Because of their physiological character, Isotonix® solutions undergo very little dilution in the body before they reach the absorption sites. They are the ideal vehicle for rapid nutrient utilization. Isotonix® are the world’s most advanced nutraceuticals.
Why is gastric (stomach) emptying time so important?
The longer a supplement stays in the stomach, the longer the time before absorption can begin, because no appreciable absorption occurs from the stomach. Often the rate-limiting step in the absorption process is the time it takes for the tablet or capsule to disintegrate, and the nutrients to dissolve and equilibrate to the proper (isotonic) state to leave the stomach. When all this has been completed — up to 40 minutes after ingestion — the diluted, acid-attacked nutrients can enter the small intestine for absorption.
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